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Variability in the Response to Non-pharmacological Treatments in Patients with Cardiovascular Diseases

[ Vol. 15 , Issue. 1 ]


Mariaconsiglia Calabrese, Tommaso Bucci, Antonia Alfano, Antonio Damato, Nicola Virtuoso and Albino Carrizzo*   Pages 45 - 59 ( 15 )


Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading causes of death worldwide.

Objective: The aim of this review is to evaluate several non-pharmacological approaches to fight the development of CVD.

Results: Various strategies have been used to induce lifestyle changes in order to reduce CVD development. In recent years, accumulating evidence has suggested that plant-foods polyphenols, due to their biological properties, may be useful as supplement food for treatments of the various aspects of CVD. Moreover, in addition to nutraceuticals supplementation, several rehabilitation programs have been standardized to improve physical function and reduce overall CVD risks. The scientific literature recommends the type of exercise useful in patients with CVD. However, very little or nothing is known about the individualized therapeutic dose for each risk profile.

Conclusion: To date, the efficacy of non-pharmacological strategies, as well as the optimal rehabilitation program remains unclear. The present review highlights the effects of personalizing the non-pharmacological intervention to contrast development and progression of CVD.


Nutraceuticals, resveratrol, exercise training, physical activity, cardiovascular risk, non-pharmacological.


Rehabilitation Department, A.O.U., Department of Internal medicine, University of Salerno, Salerno, Heart Department, A.O.U. , Laboratory of Vascular Physiopathology, IRCCS Neuromed, Pozzilli (IS), Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, A.O.U. Federico II, Naples, Vascular Physiopathology Unit, IRCCS Neuromed, Pozzilli (IS) 86077

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