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Comparative Genomic and Network Analysis of nNOS by Using Different Bioinformatics Approaches

[ Vol. 18 , Issue. 1 ]

Author(s):

Nymphaea Arora, Vikash Prashar, Tania Arora, Randeep Singh, Anshul Mishra, Priya Godara, Arpita Banerjee, Arti Sharma* and Jyoti Parkash*   Pages 24 - 38 ( 15 )

Abstract:


Introduction: Nitric Oxide (NO) is a diatomic free radical gaseous molecule that is formed from L-arginine through NOS (Nitric oxide synthase) catalyzed reaction. NO controls vascular tone (hence blood pressure), insulin secretion, airway tone, and peristalsis, and is involved in angiogenesis (growth of new blood vessels) and development of the nervous system. In the CNS, NO is an important messenger molecule, which is involved in various major functions in the brain. NOS has been classified into three isoforms, including nNOS (neuronal NOS), eNOS (endothelial NOS) and iNOS (inducible NOS). NOS1 is localized on chromosome 12 consisting of 1434 amino acids and 161 KDa molecular weight. nNOS is involved in synaptic transmission, regulating the tone of smooth muscles and penile erection. We studied NOS1 gene and protein network analysis through in silico techniques as human nNOS sequence was fetched from GenBank and its homologous sequences were retrieved through BLAST search. Moreover, the results of this study exploit the role of NOS1 in various pathways, which provide ways to regulate it in various neurodegenerative diseases.

Background: Previous research has revealed the role of Nitric Oxide (NO) formed from L-arginine through NOS (Nitric Oxide Synthase) as physiological inter/intra-cellular messenger in central as well as peripheral nervous systems. The diverse functions of NOS include insulin secretion, airway tone, vascular tone regulation, and in brain, it is involved in differentiation, development, synaptic plasticity and neurosecretion.

Objective: The objective of this study is to unravel the role of neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase (nNOS) in different pathways and its involvement as therapeutic target in various neurodegenerative disorders that can surely provide ways to regulate its activity in different aspects.

Materials and Methods: In this study, we employed various bioinformatics tools and databases initiating the study by fetching the neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase (nNOS) sequence (GenBank) to find its homologous sequences(BLAST) and then exploring its physical properties and post translational modifications, enhancing the research by network analysis (STRING), leading to its functional enrichment (Panther).

Results: The results positively support the hypothesis of its role in various pathways related to neurodegeneration and its interacting partners are the probable therapeutic targets of various neurodegenerative diseases focusing on specifically multi-target analysis.

Conclusion: This study considered evolutionary trend of physical, chemical and biological properties of NOS1 through different phyla. The neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase (nNOS), being one of the three isoforms of NOS (Nitric Oxide Synthase), is found to be involved in more pathways than just forming Nitric Oxide. This research provides the base for further neurological research.

Keywords:

Nitric oxide, nNOS, protein interaction, neurodegeneration, neurotransmission, macrophage mediated immunity, vasodilation.

Affiliation:

Department of Zoology, School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Central University Punjab, Mansa Road, Bathinda 151 001, Punjab, Bathinda, Department of Zoology, School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Central University Punjab, Mansa Road, Bathinda 151 001, Punjab, Bathinda, Department of Zoology, School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Central University Punjab, Mansa Road, Bathinda 151 001, Punjab, Bathinda, Department of Zoology, School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Central University Punjab, Mansa Road, Bathinda 151 001, Punjab, Bathinda, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Natural products, School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Central University of Punjab, Bathinda, Department of Zoology, School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Central University Punjab, Mansa Road, Bathinda 151 001, Punjab, Bathinda, Department of Zoology, School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Central University Punjab, Mansa Road, Bathinda 151 001, Punjab, Bathinda, Department of Computational Biology, School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Central University Punjab, Mansa Road, Bathinda 151 001, Punjab, Bathinda, Department of Zoology, School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Central University Punjab, Mansa Road, Bathinda 151 001, Punjab, Bathinda



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